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knowledge and further skills gained by students as a result of working on the previous exercises.

Examples of this type of exercises are given below.

  • Read the text (sentence) or listen to the oral utterance (conversation) and identify the given class of a studied component. If necessary, refer to the relevant part of the chapter. Check your answer against the key.

  • Read the text (sentence) or listen to the oral utterance (conversation) and identify the linguistic characteristics of a studied component that allow you to determine its type. If necessary refer to the relevant part of the chapter. Check your answer against the key. If necessary refer to the relevant part of the chapter. Check your answer against the key.

  • Read the text (sentence) or listen to the oral utterance (conversation) and identify the structure or a component of a studied phenomenon. If necessary refer to the relevant part of the chapter. Check your answer against the key.

  • Read the text (sentence) or listen to the oral utterance (conversation) and identify the linguistic phenomenon on the basis of which a studied component was formed. If necessary refer to the relevant part of the chapter. Check your answer against the key.

Substitution exercises allow students to further master the linguistic characteristics and

structure of the studied phenomenon. This exercise group requires from the students more active

analytical skills. In the process of working on these exercises, students practice the cognitive

functions of replacing, matching, distributing, and grouping (classifying). From passive recognition

they move to more active manipulating of studied components. This requires further integration of

theoretical knowledge gained by the students earlier and analysis how this theory manifests itself in

the reality of language. Examples of this exercise type are given below.

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