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The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, appeared to be a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as Brazil. These European revolutions were the violent consequence of such a wide variety of causes, that it is difficult to view them as resulting from any one movement or coherent social phenomenon. Changes had been taking place in Europe in the first half of the 19th century. In politics, both liberal reformers and radical politicians were seeking change in their nations' governments. In society, technological change was creating new ways of life for the working classes. A popular press, extended political awareness, and new values and ideas such as popular liberalism, nationalism and socialism began to spring up. The straw that broke the camel's back was a series of economic downturns and crop failures that left the peasants and the poor working classes starving.

Substitution Exercises: What does the allusion mean?

“There’s no joy in Mudville today.” A ) Something one says when they find themselves in an exotic place very different from their normal environment

B) Something one says when they are planning to do what they always do and not try to think outside the box

  • C)

    Response to bad news

  • D)

    Something is very wrong somewhere

Substitution exercises: Where does the allusion come from?

“I'll be back”

Literature

Cinema

Performing or visual arts

History

Politics

Imitation exercises:

  • 1)

    The student asks a question.

  • 2)

    The teacher answers the question using allusion(s) and throws the ball back into the student’s court.

  • 3)

    The student must reproduce the teacher’s answer with as many allusions as possible. For example:

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