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EUROPEAN COMMISSION DG Competition - page 2 / 113

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2 / 113

    • 6.2

      Assessment ...........................................................................................................................29

      • 6.2.1

        Pricing below average avoidable cost ...............................................................................31

      • 6.2.2

        Pricing above average avoidable cost but below average total cost .................................32

        • 6.2.2.1

          Direct evidence of a predatory strategy..........................................................................33

        • 6.2.2.2

          Indirect evidence of a predatory strategy .......................................................................33

      • 6.2.3

        Pricing below long-run average incremental costs ...........................................................36

      • 6.2.4

        Pricing above average total cost........................................................................................36

      • 6.2.5

        Possible defences: objective justifications and efficiencies..............................................38

  • 7.

    Single branding and rebates...................................................................................................39

    • 7.1

      Introduction .........................................................................................................................39

    • 7.2

      Assessment ..........................................................................................................................41

      • 7.2.1

        Single branding obligations and English clauses .............................................................42

      • 7.2.2

        Conditional rebate systems................................................................................................43

        • 7.2.2.1

          Conditional rebates on all purchases .............................................................................44

        • 7.2.2.2

          Conditional rebates on incremental purchases above the threshold...............................51

      • 7.2.3

        Rebates in return for the supply of a service by the buyer................................................52

      • 7.2.4

        Unconditional rebates........................................................................................................52

      • 7.2.5

        Possible defences: objective justifications and efficiencies..............................................53

  • 8.

    Tying and bundling ...............................................................................................................54

    • 8.1

      Introduction .........................................................................................................................54

    • 8.2

      Assessment ..........................................................................................................................55

      • 8.2.1

        Dominance in the tying market ........................................................................................55

      • 8.2.2

        Distinct products...............................................................................................................56

      • 8.2.3

        Market Distorting Foreclosure Effect ..............................................................................56

      • 8.2.4

        Possible defences: objective justifications and efficiencies.............................................60

  • 9.

    Refusal to supply ..................................................................................................................60

    • 9.1

      Introduction ........................................................................................................................60

    • 9.2

      Assessment .........................................................................................................................62

      • 9.2.1

        Termination of an existing supply relationship................................................................62

        • 9.2.1.1

          Behaviour properly characterized as termination..........................................................63

        • 9.2.1.2

          Dominance.....................................................................................................................63

        • 9.2.1.3

          Likely market distorting foreclosure effect ..................................................................63

        • 9.2.1.4

          Possible defences: objective justifications and efficiencies .........................................64

      • 9.2.2

        Refusal to start supplying an input...................................................................................64

        • 9.2.2.1

          Behaviour properly characterized as refusal to supply.................................................64

        • 9.2.2.2

          Dominance....................................................................................................................64

        • 9.2.2.3

          Indispensability ............................................................................................................65

        • 9.2.2.4

          Likely market distorting foreclosure effect ..................................................................65

        • 9.2.2.5

          Possible defences: objective justifications and efficiencies .........................................66

        • 9.2.2.6

          Refusal to licence intellectual property rights...............................................................67

      • 9.2.3

        Refusal to supply information needed for interoperability..............................................68

  • 10.

    Aftermarkets.......................................................................................................................68

    • 10.1

      Introduction ......................................................................................................................68

    • 10.2

      Assessment .......................................................................................................................69

      • 10.2.1

        Market definition............................................................................................................69

      • 10.2.2

        Dominance......................................................................................................................70

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