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Figure 1: Sources/Dimensions and Indicators of Social Exclusion; and Socially Excluded Groups of Women

Source/Dimension Groups Economic

Indicators

Excluded

low income inc. low pay and inadequate welfare benefits and pensions; consumption inadequate to needs (measurements to be decided)

unemployed, single parent families, elderly, casual workers, itinerant workers, low paid workers, ex- prisoners

unemployed, casual work, low trade-union membership

disabled, educationally unqualified, physically or mentally ill, ex-prisoners, ethnic minorities

Income

Work

homelessness, insecure housing, exploitative rents debt, lawbreaking,

travellers, unemployed, low income groups, ethnic minority groups, physically or mentally ill

restricted access to high quality services (leisure, transport, health, education, police protection), criminal victimisation

all groups above

Housing

Consumption

Location

high criminal victimisation

all groups above

Cultural law

limitations on occupational choice, mobility and residence; split families

offenders, immigrants, asylum seekers, casual and part-time workers, refugees travellers; prisoners

racism

discrimination in most areas of social life; restrictions on

ethnic minorities, migrant workers (as above)

residence, mobility, leisure activities and access to services access to welfare and other entitlements

10

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