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lack of access to ‘rights’, ‘less eligibility’ lists, (knowledge exclusion- unintelligible forms), secrecy

claimants, ex-prisoners, physically and mentally disabled, anyone seen as ‘other’, anyone not in labour market (e.g. young and old), residents in state institutions; non-speakers of dominant language

media persecution, victimisation, restrictions on mobility and restricted access to residential areas, leisure activities, work, health and education

claimants, ethnic minority groups, non-heterosexuals, migrant workers, asylum seekers, Gypsies, travellers

women, children

bureaucracies

Risk and ‘otherness’

Patriarchy

Political

tolerance of domestic violence, rape, inequitable employment law. lack of police protection, welfare benefits, and access to some services; degree of involvement in local movements

those whose status excludes them from welfare benefits, voting, health, education on grounds of age, ethnicity, imprisonment, marginal legality, inability to speak dominant language: for example: young people, runaways, asylum seekers, workers in sex industry, political demonstrators, ethnic minorities, refugees.

The Social Exclusion Unit in the UK summed up the situation there in 2002:

  • many prisoners come from a background of severe social

exclusion…women prisoners have similar – and in some cases even worse – problems to their male counterparts. (Social Exclusion Unit 2002: 137)

In this Report the concepts social exclusion and social reintegration will be used as defined by The Commission of the European Communities (see page 14 above for full reference) and which definition we quote again below: Social exclusion refers to the multiple and changing factors resulting in people being excluded from the normal exchanges, practices and rights of modern society. Poverty is one of the most obvious factors, but social exclusion also refers to inadequate rights in housing, education, health and access to services. It affects individuals and groups, particularly in urban and rural areas, who are in some way

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