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e) In 1936, Jacobo Glantz wrote the book Fonen und Blut (Flags and Blood) that dealt with Spain in 1936, work sponsored by Guezbir of México (Jewish political party that sponsored the idea of creating a Jewish homeland in Birobidjan in the USSR) located in Palma 31, first floor. In his poems, Glantz described the Spanish Civil War. The money from the sale of those books was allotted to backing those who were fighting for the liberty of Spain.

f) In 1939, Glantz published, again sponsored by Guezbir as well as his friends and colleagues, the book Trit In Di Berg (Steps in the Mountains), poems written between 1926 and 1936. Parts of the book contain Mexican subjects such as: The Indian Hut, Mexico surrounded by Mountains, A Native Village, Chapultepec Castle, etc.

g) In 1939, Der Weg edited a book by Leo Forem, titled Carmen un Andere Dertzeilungen (Carmen and other Stories) which is divided in two parts: the first one titled Mexicanismos (Mexican Vernacular) that includes nine stories about life in Mexico.

h) Meyer Corona wrote Heimishe Mentchn (Trustworthy People), sponsored by the Cultural Club of Mexico, in 1939. It is made up of sixteen stories about Jewish life in Mexico.

i) In the middle of 1939, Yosef Winiecki wrote the book Oif Biblishe Motivn (Biblical Motifs, maxims, epigrams and paraphrases) with a prologue by Moises Rosenberg, edited by Der Weg (The Road).

3) TRANSLATIONS TO YIDDISH AND HEBREW

The series of translations of the Works of Universal Literature to Yiddish and Hebrew holds 725 volumes:

The series of translations of Works of Universal Literature is located within the library of the Center of Documentation and Investigation of the Ashkenazi Community.

These translations were made so as to approach and involve European Jews into universal culture.

The creation of the Bund (Union), a Jewish Polish socialist party, was very influential in performing these translations because the leftist Jewish parties in Poland tried to palliate the great economic needs that prevailed in the country through the richness of culture. They created clubs, libraries, cultural leagues, theater circles, professional groups, press, magazines written in Yiddish, Hebrew, Polish and Russian, as well as Jewish schools where Jewish history and literature were taught. There were courses for workers and hundreds of classes for the Jewish working population were organized. These classes were taught in Yiddish, considered the language of the people, of the common man, who had at the same time generated a very rich press and literature. The Yiddish language got the Jews to approach universal culture and began to awaken their interest in the non Jewish world.

The translations to Hebrew were influenced by the Haskalah (Illustration), movement that had its birth in Germany in the 18th century. Through this movement Jewish education became secular: instead of studying the Bible, Jews were supposed to study secular subjects in Hebrew and thus plunge into universal literature.

Some examples of works of universal culture translated into Yiddish are:

a) Karl Marx, The Capital, published in New York for the Literary Kropotkin Organization in 1917, translated from German to Yiddish by Dr. I. A. Merison.

The translator of this work expressed the difficulty of translating political economics into Yiddish, but in spite of that, he felt that it was very important to translate The Capital, because for him it was the Bible of socialism. Dr. Merison’s translation is based on Kautsky’s text which was the fifth translation of the book into German. The translator used a series of Germanic words to enable him to express Marxist terminology, because he was convinced that there should be a large Jewish socialist movement in the United States instead of the “Yiddish speaking” small socialist groups. Dr. Merison considered that the translation of The Capital to Yiddish was very timely because he could envision

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