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Gender and Race Differences in Leader Behaviour Preferences in South Africa - page 13 / 35

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4.

Persuasiveness measures to what extent the leader uses persuasion and argument effectively; exhibits strong convictions.

5.

Initiation of Structure measures to what degree the leader clearly defines own role, and lets followers know what is expected.

6.

Tolerance of Freedom reflects to what extent the leader allows followers scope for initiative, decision and action.

7.

Role Assumption measures to what degree the leader exercises actively the leadership role rather than surrendering leadership to others.

8.

Consideration depicts to what extent the leader regards the comfort, well being, status and contributions of followers.

9.

Production Emphasis measures to what degree the leader applies pressure for productive output.

10.

Predictive Accuracy measures to what extent the leader exhibits foresight and ability to predict outcomes accurately.

11.

Integration reflects to what degree the leader maintains a closely-knit organization; resolves inter-member conflicts.

12.

Superior Orientation measures to what extent the leader maintains cordial relations with superiors; has influence with them; is striving for higher status.

These twelve behavioural patterns are measured by the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) XII. Judge, Piccolo, and Ilies (2004) attempted to identify all possible studies of the relationships between Consideration, Initiating Structure, and relevant organizational criteria. The results of this analysis indicated higher LBDQ scores to be positively associated with greater leader effectiveness ratings.

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