The LBDQ XII has been used in several countries to study leadership behaviour, Littrell 2002a, 2002b, 2004a, 2004b; Littrell and Valentin (forthcoming 2005); Lucas, Mesner, Ryan and Sturm, (1992); Schneider and Littrell (2003), Selmer (1997), Black and Porter (1991), and Stogdill (1963), with the general finding that patterns of preferred leader behaviours vary significantly and considerably across national cultures.
Three hypotheses were proposed.
Hypothesis 1a: The means for the preferred leader behaviour factor scores for the “ideal leader” will differ significantly across racial groups.
Hypothesis 1b: The means for the preferred leader behaviour factor scores for the “ideal leader” will differ significantly between males and females.
Hypothesis 1c: The differences in the sub-sample means for the preferred leader behaviour factor scores for the “ideal leader” among the racial groups will vary as a function of gender.
The LBDQ XII was administered in English in South Africa. The survey asked subjects to rate the behaviour of the “ideal leader” on 100 items on a 5-point Likert scale with the anchors: A=Always, B=Often, C=Occasionally, D=Seldom, E=Never, converted for scoring to A=5. B=4, etc. Subsets of the 100 items defined the leader behaviour factors, consisting of 5 or 10 items per factor (Stogdill, 1967).
Judge, Piccolo, and Ilies (2004) demonstrated adequate construct validity for the LBDQ XII against the construct of leader effectiveness by means of a meta-analysis of studies using the survey. Reliability of the factors defined by the item sets,