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Gender and Race Differences in Leader Behaviour Preferences in South Africa - page 29 / 35

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TABLE 1.

Statistical Analyses – Sub-Samples with Significant Differences by Factors

Tests of Race, Gender and Interaction Effects (Race x Gender)

and Multiple Comparisons

(Very conservative analysis assuming non-homogeneity of variance for all sub-samples and all factor means indicates a significant difference for Coloured males and other sub-samples for, e.g., Factor 2. Less conservative analyses assuming homogeneity of variances appears in the table below.) NOTE: Interpretation of Multiple Comparisons: When you interpret multiple comparisons, remember that failure to reject the hypothesis that two or more means are equal should not lead you to conclude that the population means are, in fact, equal. Failure to reject the null hypothesis implies only that the difference between population means, if any, is not large enough to be detected with the given sample size. A related point is that non-significance is non-transitive: that is, given three sample means, the largest and smallest may be significantly different from each other, while neither is significantly different from the middle one. Non-transitive results of this type occur frequently in multiple comparisons. Multiple comparisons can also lead to varying significant difference groupings when the cell sizes are unequal in large amounts; these differences can often be counter-intuitive. Attention is directed to the very small size for some groups; analyses including these samples are included for indicative information only, and should not be generalized to the populations from which they are drawn.

Two-way ANOVA: R=Race Main Effect, G=Gender Main Effect, RxG=Interaction Effect

ANOVA Multiple Comparisons

Significant Differences, p<0.50

Sub-Sample

N

Mean

Std.

Dev.

Significant effects: R, RxG

F1: Representation

Asian Female

8

4.33

0.41

Asian Females x Black Females, White Females, Coloured Males

Asian Male

25

4.14

0.42

Black Male

58

4.12

0.49

White Male

63

4.04

0.52

Coloured Female

6

4.03

0.89

Total

221

4.03

0.54

Black Female

30

3.92

0.59

Asian Females x Black Females

White Female

23

3.90

0.53

Asian Females x White Females

Coloured Male

8

3.38

0.57

Coloured Males x All Others

Significant effects: R, G, RxG

F2: Demand Reconciliation

White Female

23

4.28

0.68

Black Male

58

4.25

0.48

White Male

63

4.24

0.47

Black Female x White Male

Asian Female

8

4.23

0.53

Coloured Female

6

4.23

0.39

Total

221

4.17

0.54

Asian Male

25

4.16

0.50

Black Female

30

3.99

0.56

Black Female x Black Male

Coloured Male

8

3.30

0.49

Coloured Males x All Others

Significant effects: none

F3: Tolerance of Uncertainty

Coloured Female

6

3.77

0.61

Multiple comparison ANOVA:

Coloured Female x Coloured Male

White Female

23

3.60

0.46

White Male

63

3.47

0.43

Total

221

3.46

0.49

Black Male

58

3.44

0.55

Asian Male

25

3.43

0.45

Black Female

30

3.41

0.49

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