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Dissector: Head and Neck

Suboccipital Region

Foramen magnum: boundary b/w brain stem and spinal cord

Semispinalis capitis

o

Inserts into occipital bone

o

Greater occipital nerve travels within muscle

Travels to inferior border of inferior oblique

Emerges b/w C1 and C2

Cutaneous to posterior aspect of scalp

Suboccipital triangle

o

Obliquus capitis inferior (inferior oblique)

Inferior boundary

From spinous process of C2 to transverse process of atlas

o

Rectus capitis posterior major (rectus major)

Medial boundary

From spinous process of C2 to inferior nuchal line (superolateral direction)

Rectus minor lies medial to it (from posterior tubercle of atlas)

o

Obliquus capitis superior (superior oblique)

Lateral boundary

Deep

From transverse process of C1 to occipital bone

o

Contents of triangle

Suboccipital nerve (dorsal ramus of C1)

Emerges b/w occipital and C1

Motor to muscles of suboccipital region

Vertebral artery

Passes through foramina transversaria of axis and atlas

Curves around superior articular process of atlas

Passes in groove on arch of atlas

Passes thru hiatus in posterior atlanto-occipital membrane

Vertebral Canal and Spinal Cord

o

Vertebral canal

Continuous hollow structure

Formed by successive vertebral foraminal of cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae and sacral canal

Encloses and protects spinal cord, its spinal meninges and spinal blood vessels

o

Spinal cord

Cylindrical

Part of CNS

Downward continuation of medulla oblongata

Beings at foramen magnum; ends at level second lumbar vertebra

Cervical enlargement for 2 upper limbs: C3-T2

Lumbosacral enlargement for 2 lower limbs: T9-T12

Covered by dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater; subarachnoid space contains CSF

Conus medullaris: end of spinal cord: L1 and L2

Cauda equina: collection of ventral and dorsal roots caudal to termination of spinal cord

Filum terminale: delicate filament continuous with pia mater

Intradural portion ends at S2

Extradural prolongation ends at coccyx

o

Spines attached by supraspinous ligaments and interspinous ligaments

o

Ligamenta flava: connect laminae of adjacent vertebrae

Extend laterally to intervertebral foramina to bind them posterioraly

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