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o

runs anterior to inferior alveolar nerve

o

emerges  inferior border of lateral pterygoid

maxillary artery

o

most cases: superficial to lateral pterygoid

two heads: one from roof of fossa, one from lateral pterygoid plate

insertion: neck of mandible

interval b/w lateral and medial pterygoids: lingual and inferior alveolar nerve

branches

inferior alveolar artery

o

goes to mandibular foramen

o

runs within mandible and supplies teeth

middle meningeal artery

o

goes to foramen spinosum     

muscular branches to muscles of mastication

branches of pterygopalatine fossa

posterior superior alveolar artery

chorda tympani: joins lingual nerve, originally posterior to it

buccal nerve: pierces buccinator to supply buccal mucosa

temporomandibular joint

o

capsule of TMJ is lax

thickened laterally--> TM ligament

o

hinge movements, protraction and retraction

o

lower cavity:

simple hinge movements b/w head and disk

o

upper cavity

disk and head glide on articular tubercle during protraction of mandible

Craniovertebral Joints

retropharyngeal (retrovisceral) space

o

located b/w visceral compartment and prevertebral fascia

o

contains loose fibrous tissue

o

extends from base of skull into superior part of thorax

at T3: prevertebral fascia fuses w/ buccopharyngeal (visceral) fascia

bony landmarks

o

Axis, C2: dens/odontoid process: apposition with anterior arch of atlas

o

Atlas, C1: posterior arch, anterior arch w / facet for dens, transverse process, superior articular facet

o

Dens of axis held tight to anterior arch by transverse ligament of atlas: bow shaped and very strong

Joint b/w occipital condyle and superior articular facet of atlas: atlanto-occipital joint

o

Movement: Yes Joint (nodding)

Joint b/w dens of axis and anterior arch of atlas:

o

Movement: No Joint (rotation, side-to-side mvmnt)

Craniovertebral region covered by dura mater and tectorial membrane: protect underlying ligaments

Ligaments

o

Transverse ligament of atlas

Holds dens of axis firmly to anterior arch of atlas

o

Transverse ligament + superior + inferior bands: cruciform/cruciate ligament

o

Alar ligaments

Extend from dens to lateral margins of foramen magnum

Strong

Restrict lateral rotation and side-t-side movements of head

Sympathetic trunk

o

Posterior to common and internal carotid arteries

o

Goes to carotid canal

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