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superior end of respiratory and digestive tubes

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extends from base of skull to inferior border of cricoid cartilage (C6)

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5 layers

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areolar coat/layer

continuous with areolar layer of buccinator

aka buccopharyngeal fascia

facilitates mvmts of pharynx

contains pharyngeal plexus of veins and nerves

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muscular layer

outer circular part

inner longitudinal part

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fibrous layer/pharyngobasilar fascia

strong where pharynx anchors to base of skull

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submucosa

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mucous membrane

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muscular layers

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three constrictors

superior, middle, inferior

fan-shaped

narrow ends are fixed anteriorly

fans meet on posterior side in median raphe

laterally: gaps b/w constrictors

vessels, nerves and muscles pass thru

superior constrictor

arises from pterygomandibular raphe/ligmament and from mandible

middle constrictor

fibers arise from greater horn of hyoid hone and from inferior portion of stylohyoid ligament

inferior constrictor

continuous origin from thyroid and cricoid cartilages

overlaps middle constrictor

bottom fibers continuous with esophagus

gap b/w  superior and middle constrictor

stylopharyngeus and glossopharyngeal nerve

gap b/w middle and inferior constrictor

internal laryngeal nerve and superior laryngeal vessels pierce thyrohyoid membrane

below inferior constrictor

recurrent layrngeal nerve enters pharyngeal wall

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internal aspect

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communicates with nose, mouth and larynx

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three parts:

nasal pharynx

soft palate, ending in uvula, separates nasopharynx from oral pharynx

posterior extension of nasal cavities

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continuous with choanae: posterior nasal apertures

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lateral wall: middle and inferior concha—scroll like bones

on each side, pharyngeal orifice of auditory tube

torus tubarius: underlying cartilage of auditory tube

posterior to torus tubarius: pharyngeal recess-->extends to carotid canal

curved, bony roof: sphenoid and occipital bones

pharyngeal tonsil/nasopharyngeal tonsil

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