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Pia mater

Forms strong pointed prolongations: denticulate ligaments

Secure spinal cord to dura mater

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Small blood vessels pass thru intervertebral foramina and course along ventral and dorsal roots

Spinal branches of intercostals, lumbar, vertebral arteries

Anterior radicular and posterior radicular branches

Vital for proper neural functioning of spinal cord

Anterior Aspect of Skull and Face

Facial muscles of expression, muscles of scalp and external ear and platysma: 2nd branchial archfacial nerve/CN VII

Facial muscles: subcutaneous; inserted on skin

Muscles of mastication: 1st branchial archtrigeminal nerve (CN V)

Main portion of CN Vsensory

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Forehead, eyes, nose: ophthalmic division

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Cheek: maxillary division

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Mandibular region: mandibular division

Sensory nerves of cervical segmentsparts of mandible and ear

Teeth

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Adult: 32 teeth; 16 top, 16 bottom

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Embedded in alveolar processes

Bregma: meeting point between coronal sagittal suture

Temperomandibular joint: b/w head of mandible and fossa on temporal bone

Platysma

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Attaches to inferior border of mandible and 2nd rib

Masseter

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From zygomatic arch to ramus of mandible

Parotid duct

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Inferior to zygomatic arch, parotid duct crosses lateral aspect of masseter muscle

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Opens into oral cavity opposite upper 2nd molar tooth

Slight elevation of buccal mucosa: parotid papilla

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Turns at right angle at anterior border of masseter

Pierces buccinator

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Superior to duct

Transverse facial artery and zygomatic branch of facial nerve

Facial nerve

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Traverses parotid gland

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Within gland, nerve divides into various branches that radiate to facial muscles of expression

Highest branch: temporal branch

Crosses zygomatic bone

Middle branches: zygomatic branch and buccal branch

May have interconnections

Mandibular branch

Runs above inferior margin of jaw

Lowest branch: cervical branch

Runs below angle of mandible

Sends twigs to platysma

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