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large, fan-shaped

apical attachment to genial tubercle of mandible

paired muscle: fused in midline

protrudes tongue: move anterior and stretches

if one side does not work, tongue deviates to side of lesion

if paralyzed, tongue relapses posteriorly against posterior pharyngeal wall when supinesuffocation

loses tongue during certain phases of sleep

o

intrinsic musculature: vertical, transverse and longitudinal fibers

Larynx

skeleton of larynx responsible for shape

o

series of articulated cartilages united by membranes

cricoid cartilage

o

signet ring

o

large plate/laminaposterior

o

archanterior

cricothyroid joint

o

inferior horns (cornua) of thyroid cartilage articulates with cricoid cartilage at special facets

o

@ facts, thyroid cartilage can be tilted anteriorly or posteriorly

arytenoid cartilages

o

superior border of lamina of cricoid has articular facets for cartilages

o

small, pyramidal

o

movements

tilting anteriorly and posteriorly

sliding toward or away from another

rotary motion

vocal ligaments:

o

posterior ends: attached to vocal processes of arytenoids cartilages

o

anterior ends: converge @ angle formed by laminae of thyroid cartilage

epiglottic cartilage

o

posterior to tongue and hyoid bone

o

stalk is attached in angle b/w thyroid laminae, superior to vocal ligaments

intrinsic  laryngeal muscles

o

posterior cricoarytenoid muscles

pair of muscles

from posterior lamina of cricoid

inserts into muscular processes of arytenoids cartilages

opens rima glottides (interval b/w true vocal cords)

maintains respiratory airway

o

arytenoid muscle

unites two arytenoids cartilages by transverse fibers

superficial oblique fibers: cross to opposite side toward epiglottis

aka aryepiglotticus

recurrent laryngeal nerve: posterior to cricothyroid joint

ligamentous bands hold joint together

laryngeal muscles

o

cricothyroid

from surface of cricoid to inferior border and inferior horn of to thyroid cartilage  

tilts thyroid cartilage anteriorlytenses vocal cord (higher pitch of voice)

o

lateral cricoarytenoid

from superior border of cricoid and cricothyroid ligament to muscular process of arytenoids cartilage

o

thyroarytenoid

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