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efficiency due to its tight integration with the device. Efficiency can be calculated from the calibrated gain and radiation pattern measurement but this can be a time-consuming effort.

Within the last 10 years, a new type of efficiency measurement tool has become available – sometime referred to as a “3D Chamber”. The most common manufacturer of this tool is Satimo. The 3D Chamber uses a circular array of test antennas (measuring energy in two orthogonal polarizations) and a rotating table to quickly measure the total energy generated by the antenna under test. The resulting total efficiency measurement is accurate, repeatable and can be used to compare various antenna topologies quickly.

6. Antenna Issues Related to Product Certification

Successful certification of a wireless device requires compliance with FCC regulations, PTCRB conformance test requirements, and AT&T specifications. FCC regulations are primarily concerned with radiated emissions from the device (both intended and un-intended) while the PTCRB conformance testing is primarily intended to verify the proper RF parametric operation in a conducted RF environment. AT&T's device requirements focus on device functionality and interoperability with the AT&T network. In addition, AT&T requires the measurement of a device's Total Radiated Power and Total Integrated Sensitivity. The AT&T TRP and TIS requirements can be obtained upon execution of a non- disclosure agreement (NDA).

While writing this paper, we wanted to know what kind of antenna issues arose most commonly during the certification process so we interviewed several experts from major certification labs. When asked what were the primary antenna-related reasons for certification failures, Lothar Schmidt of Cetecom Laboratories told us “The most common antenna-related failures, in order, are high levels of

Antenna Fundamentals Technical Brief

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