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Chapter 1: Problem Statement

The notion that employees are crucial for organizational effectiveness has come to

be viewed as a truism in the management literature (Barnard, 1938; Coff, 1997; Deal &

Kennedy, 1988; Katz, 1964; Lengnick-Hall & Lengnick-Hall, 2003). From a resource-

based theory perspective, human capital is considered as valuable, hard-to-imitate, and

socially complex and therefore (Coff, 1997), can serve as a source of competitive

advantage for organizations. As a result, the process through which employees contribute

to organizational effectiveness has received a great deal of attention. One important area

of research examining human capital is the literature exploring the work performance

domain and its various forms and manifestations in the workplace (Barnard, 1938;

Borman & Motowidlo, 1993; Katz, 1964; Organ, 1988).

It has been established that satisfying the specific job requirements on a day-to-

day basis through on-the-job task performance is not the only important component of

employee effectiveness (Borman & Motowidlo, 1993; Organ, 1988; Van Scotter &

Motowidlo, 1996). Rooted in earlier notions that organizations need to ensure that

employees engage in beneficial behaviors beyond their immediate technical job

requirements (Barnard, 1938; Katz & Kahn, 1978), extensive research has been devoted

to fleshing out behavioral constructs that go beyond the specific technical requirements of

a job and add value to employee effectiveness and which ultimately contribute to group

and organizational effectiveness (Katz, 1964; Organ, 1988; Podsakoff, Ahearne, &

MacKenzie, 1994; Van Scotter & Motowidlo, 1996). While task behaviors directly

concern the technical core of the organization by serving to transform raw materials into

products and distributing, and providing service for products, non-task behaviors “do not


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