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In hypothesis 3, I proposed that culture strength would act as a moderator of the

relationships between culture and roles. In two cases, the interaction effects were

significant. There was a negative relationship between clan culture and achievement

(high performance) role, when both the level of clan culture and culture strength were

high. Finally, hierarchy culture and hierarchy culture strength seemed to have

substitutable effects on the level of compliant role perceptions.

In hypothesis 4, on the basis of social conformity perspective, I predicted that

roles would be more related to expected behaviors in stronger cultures. Only one of the

proposed relationships received statistical support. Employees with achievement role

orientation who perceived the culture of the organization as strongly reinforcing the

dimension of external competitiveness (i.e. had strong market culture) were viewed as

less helpful by their supervisors.

Hypothesis 5 posited that self-monitoring will impact the extent to which

individuals incorporate the organizational culture in their roles. None of the relationships

received empirical support. One of the interaction terms was, in fact, significant but in a

different from the predicted direction. Hypothesis 6, in which I suggested that self-

monitoring will enhance the relationships between roles and exhibited behaviors, was

also not supported.

For hypothesis 7, P-O fit interacted with culture in such a way that individuals

who experienced high fit and were in a highly market-oriented environment, were

increasingly likely to perceive helping as less in-role than individuals who had high fit

but were in organizations with less market-oriented cultures. Hypothesis 8, which

proposed that perceived fit would enhance the enactment of organizational roles, was not


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