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positively associated with perceptions of innovative role while negatively associated with

perceptions that the work role focus of an individual should be on efficiency and

compliance. Cultures that maintained a focus on hierarchy and rules, on the other hand,

were positively, albeit insignificantly, related to perceptions of a compliant role

orientation, while negatively related to innovative role orientation. These findings suggest

that organizations undoubtedly influence the role perceptions of individuals working in

the organization via their management philosophies and espoused values.

Only one aspect of culture—the clan culture, did not appear to be related to

employee perceptions of helping role. The lack of relationship between clan culture and

a helping role may suggest that cognition is not as important for certain aspects of

culture. Therefore, this non-finding may convey the importance of emotional and other

non-cognitive factors such as affective attitudes as more important for helping. Some of

the extant literature corroborates this logic in the sense that relational quality and mood

have both been confirmed as predictors of helping as a form of OCB over and above

fairness cognitions (George, 1991; Wayne et al., 1997).

In this study, interestingly, company experience was a positive predictor of a

helping orientation, suggesting that more experienced workers, were more likely to

possess a helping role orientation. This finding is not surprising because workers who

have been around for longer can also be expected to “know the ropes” in the organization

better, and to be more capable of helping their fellow employees. Employees with less

company experience, by comparison, might be too busy making sense of their

environment and might, as a result, fail to perceive that they should be helping their



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