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Working in an organization with a clan culture was also unrelated to achievement

role, failing to support the competing aspects of the clan and market oriented aspects of

culture. The competing values framework (Cameron & Quinn, 1999) suggests that the

market and clan quadrant are opposite to each other. However, as the results indicate this

may not be the case. Specifically, the market aspect in the competing values framework is

captured in the degree to which an organization emphasizes achievement and winning in

the marketplace. Thus, the non-cooperative aspects of competition are emphasized on the

outside of the organization but not necessarily on the inside.

Similarly, while market culture was associated with individuals being more likely

to hold an achievement role, it was not negatively related to a helping orientation. Taken

together, the results for clan and market culture suggest that the focus of competition

(internal versus external) is important in understanding the relationships between culture,

roles, and behaviors. The competing values framework examines external focus on

competition. This type of competition is not intrinsically opposite to cooperation

(helping) within the organization. In fact, it may even be conducive to help when the

identity of the external group is pitted against the identity of the internal group (Ashforth

& Mael, 1989; Turner, 1981).

This conclusion is in line with the predictions of a different culture inventory,

namely the organizational culture inventory (Cooke & Rousseau, 1988), wherein high

achievement roles are inherent in a constructive culture environment, which also

emphasizes cooperation in the attainment of goals. In contrast, the competitive norms in

the organizational culture inventory highlight the less functional competitive aspects of

culture. Therefore, the market and clan aspects of the competing values framework may


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