need to be re-conceptualized to reflect the fact that they are not opposed to each other in
terms of the types of roles and behaviors they encourage from employees. Specifically,
the clan and market culture are not opposite to each other in a correlational sense.
Moreover, I do not find evidence that they have opposite signs in predicting criteria of
interest (criterion validity). Thus, my analysis does not provide support for the competing
aspects of the market and clan aspects of culture.
Culture strength was proposed as a moderator between culture and roles (Martin,
1992). The results suggest that the perception of a shared and reinforced culture around a
specific dimension of proffered culture norms had an impact on the employee role
perceptions in some situations. For instance, individuals in high clan contexts who also
felt that cooperativeness and cohesion were valued and shared by their coworkers
perceived that high individual achievement is not part of their expected role at work. This
finding may suggest that while clan culture is not contradictory to setting high
performance goals for achievement, it becomes dysfunctional for high achievement
expectations when both the overall management philosophy and the strength of norms
emphasize teamwork and cooperativeness. The interaction between hierarchy culture and
strength around rules and regulations indicated that these two aspects of culture seem to
be substitutable in the sense that the lowest perceptions of compliant role were observed
at the low end of strength and culture. The other proposed interactive relationships
involving culture and culture strength were not statistically significant.
It is also worth noting that I only found significant interactions by using a direct
measure of strength, asking participants to assess the level of culture strength. Compared
to the indirect standard deviation approach used in the climate research (Schneider et al.,