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need to be re-conceptualized to reflect the fact that they are not opposed to each other in

terms of the types of roles and behaviors they encourage from employees. Specifically,

the clan and market culture are not opposite to each other in a correlational sense.

Moreover, I do not find evidence that they have opposite signs in predicting criteria of

interest (criterion validity). Thus, my analysis does not provide support for the competing

aspects of the market and clan aspects of culture.

Culture strength was proposed as a moderator between culture and roles (Martin,

1992). The results suggest that the perception of a shared and reinforced culture around a

specific dimension of proffered culture norms had an impact on the employee role

perceptions in some situations. For instance, individuals in high clan contexts who also

felt that cooperativeness and cohesion were valued and shared by their coworkers

perceived that high individual achievement is not part of their expected role at work. This

finding may suggest that while clan culture is not contradictory to setting high

performance goals for achievement, it becomes dysfunctional for high achievement

expectations when both the overall management philosophy and the strength of norms

emphasize teamwork and cooperativeness. The interaction between hierarchy culture and

strength around rules and regulations indicated that these two aspects of culture seem to

be substitutable in the sense that the lowest perceptions of compliant role were observed

at the low end of strength and culture. The other proposed interactive relationships

involving culture and culture strength were not statistically significant.

It is also worth noting that I only found significant interactions by using a direct

measure of strength, asking participants to assess the level of culture strength. Compared

to the indirect standard deviation approach used in the climate research (Schneider et al.,


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