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eliciting these important non-task behaviors (Schein, 1985). At the same time, relatively

little research to date has sought to directly investigate the relationships that might exist

between organizational culture and employee behavior. This is perhaps surprising since

the literature linking organizational culture and organizational effectiveness has stressed a

behavioral explanation by arguing that cultures elicit, encourage and reinforce certain

critical behaviors by employees to facilitate organizational effectiveness (Denison &

Mishra, 1995; Kotter & Heskett, 1992). In other words, the implicit assumption is that

organizational culture provides a blueprint for eliciting and supporting the types of

employee behaviors which the organization has developed to cope with its problems of

external adaptation and internal integration (Quinn & Rohrbaugh, 1983; Schein, 1985).

This important assumption, that culture drives employee behaviors, however, has

received only limited direct empirical attention (Tesluk, Hofmann, & Quigley, 2002).

Recent events in the business world nevertheless suggest that understanding

organizational culture and its impact on human behavior in organizations may be of

critical importance. Enron, for instance, is an exemplar of how having the wrong

organizational culture precipitates business failure. Enron’s high achievement oriented,

entrepreneurial employees reinforced the competitive “survival-of-the-fittest” culture of

the company (Byrne, 2002). Because of the unreasonably high performance expectations,

competitive behavior taken to an unethical level became the norm for many Enron

managers and employees. The Enron leadership sustained this aggressive culture by

enriching themselves possibly unethically. By comparison, companies prominent for their

innovation competencies like 3M and Apple effectively reinforce innovative employee

behavior by sustaining a culture for creativity and innovation (Tesluk, Farr & Klein,


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