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ratings of innovative behavior. This pattern of results may be attributed to similar

theoretical and empirical causes as in the case of the coworker ratings. However, in the

case of supervisors, there is an even stronger potential for inaccuracy due to lack of

intimate knowledge with the focal employees’ daily behaviors or due to a “halo” bias,

and inaccuracy of the behavioral/performance ratings (Cardy & Dobbins, 1986; Feldman,

1981; Kozlowski & Kirsch, 1987; Lefkowitz, 2000; Longenecker, Sims, & Gioia, 1987;

Murphy & Balzer, 1986).

In the next stage, I tested the theoretically proposed interactions. Only one

interaction emerged as a significant predictor of the outcome behaviors. Specifically,

achievement role and market strength interacted so that when the culture was perceived

as strongly market-oriented, and individuals perceived that they were expected to

aggressively strive for strong individual performance results, their overall level of helping

decreased as rated from the supervisor perspective. Overall, the inability to detect other

significant interaction results may be partly attributed to the low sample size (lower

statistical power), and the documented difficulty in obtaining theoretically viable

interaction results in field settings (Champoux & Peters, 1987; Chaplin, 1991; West,

Biesanz, & Pitts, 2000).


Theoretical. The main theoretical contribution of this thesis is that it examines

organizational culture as a predictor of employee roles and behaviors. The results provide

support for most of the proposed relationships between the overall espoused

organizational culture and employee role perceptions. From a theoretical standpoint, this

suggests that the extent to which a behavior is viewed as in-role or extra-role is likely to


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