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depend on the overall context (Morrison & Phelps, 1999; Organ, 1988). Therefore, future

studies may need to go beyond social exchange in explaining organizational citizenship

behaviors, or prosocial behaviors (Morrison, 1994; Wayne et al., 1997), and may need to

consider the role of espoused management philosophies in informing employees’ roles

and behaviors. The contextual perspective on employee roles and behaviors does not

negate a social exchange view but rather complements it. Specifically, it suggests

overarching contextual factors, which may provide additional explanatory power in

predicting employees’ cognitions and behaviors.

The difficulty in obtaining results linking roles to behaviors, on the other hand,

suggests that further theoretical exploration is needed to detect what contributes to

individuals enacting their expected roles. The literature on roles suggests that individuals

socialized in a certain context are likely to enact an expected role (Biddle, 1979).

However, the results indicate that a more complex view on the relationships between

roles and behaviors is warranted in an organizational context. Given the complexity of

the organization as a system, perhaps it is not surprising to find that the relationships I

expected did not hold, when considered in isolation from other relevant factors.

Specifically, given that the organizational level is more distant than other levels (such as

the group or team level, or that of the immediate supervisor expectations), organizational

expectations may not be linearly related (or may be unrelated) to observed behaviors due

to intervening factors on intermediate levels (Chan, 1998; Chen, 2005; Gully,

Incalcaterra, Joshi, & Beuabien, 2002; Scott & Bruce, 1994).

Another theoretical implication emanates from the low inter-correlations between

peer and supervisor ratings of behaviors. Perhaps, rigorous research pointing out the

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