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causes for rating-source differences and validity of different source ratings would

contribute to our understanding of the benefits of 360-degree feedback efforts, and the

employee behavior/performance appraisal process. The literature on 360-degree feedback

suggests that peers may be in a better position to observe the interpersonal behaviors of

their colleagues, while supervisors may be more apt at rating behaviors directly related to

performance results (Murphy & Cleveland, 1990). In addition, some of the extant

literature points out that the correlations between peers and supervisors are typically high

(e.g. .62 according to meta-analysis by Harris & Schaubroeck, 1988) but this was not the

case in this study. Therefore, a careful theoretically driven examination of the effects of

rater on assessed behaviors seems warranted for enhancing our overall understanding of

the appraisal process.

Applied. The results of this study indicate that culture is an important tool in

shaping employee cognitive roles with respect to what is expected of them in the work

environment. Therefore, organizations seeking to emphasize innovation would be better

off maximizing the entrepreneurial elements in the organizational environment, while de-

emphasizing the extent of rules and regulations if they are to promote an innovative role

orientation. Likewise, organizations that want to encourage high achievement orientation

are likely to benefit from a market-oriented culture, supporting external competition.

Managers of such organizations are, thus, well advised to espouse an external-oriented

culture, and to emphasize achievement in their policies, and procedures. In addition, the

results indicate that maintaining a strong clan environment tends to de-emphasize the

achievement orientation of employees.


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