causes for rating-source differences and validity of different source ratings would
contribute to our understanding of the benefits of 360-degree feedback efforts, and the
employee behavior/performance appraisal process. The literature on 360-degree feedback
suggests that peers may be in a better position to observe the interpersonal behaviors of
their colleagues, while supervisors may be more apt at rating behaviors directly related to
performance results (Murphy & Cleveland, 1990). In addition, some of the extant
literature points out that the correlations between peers and supervisors are typically high
(e.g. .62 according to meta-analysis by Harris & Schaubroeck, 1988) but this was not the
case in this study. Therefore, a careful theoretically driven examination of the effects of
rater on assessed behaviors seems warranted for enhancing our overall understanding of
the appraisal process.
Applied. The results of this study indicate that culture is an important tool in
shaping employee cognitive roles with respect to what is expected of them in the work
environment. Therefore, organizations seeking to emphasize innovation would be better
off maximizing the entrepreneurial elements in the organizational environment, while de-
emphasizing the extent of rules and regulations if they are to promote an innovative role
orientation. Likewise, organizations that want to encourage high achievement orientation
are likely to benefit from a market-oriented culture, supporting external competition.
Managers of such organizations are, thus, well advised to espouse an external-oriented
culture, and to emphasize achievement in their policies, and procedures. In addition, the
results indicate that maintaining a strong clan environment tends to de-emphasize the
achievement orientation of employees.