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Overall, the findings suggest that accentuating certain aspects of the environment

while paying special attention to de-emphasizing others is likely to convey the desired

message more effectively to employees. Therefore, leaders should concentrate their

efforts on creating a system of policies that can be combined effectively to influence

employee perceptions of their roles at work. However, the findings also indicated a

difficulty in obtaining evidence for significant links between roles and behaviors. This

should alert leaders of organizations that there are additional factors, which influence the

extent to which employees behave in organizationally prescribed ways.

In addition, some of the findings also convey the importance of roles for

behaviors. For instance, an entrepreneurial role is likely to produce less compliant

behavior. This aspect is, perhaps, important for managers to understand in managing and

evaluating their employees’ performance levels, as they are likely to require some level

of compliance.

The study also has implications for 360-degree feedback efforts and the

management of employees’ competencies. Examining the relatively low correlations

between supervisors and coworkers on the same aspects of focal employee behaviors

(e.g. innovation) suggest that there are significant discrepancies in the way that managers

and peers perceive the focal employees. Therefore, it seems warranted for supervisors to

understand what is driving this difference in administering performance or competency

evaluations. While the differences in perspectives may be valid (Tornow, 1993), the

literature is not conclusive regarding the practical implications of these differences, and

how they should be incorporated in the developmental feedback that a lot of 360-degree

initiatives intend to provide.

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