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1997). Companies pursuing internal stability such as large government bureaucracies are

likely to seek to instill respect for order and rule following as appropriate behaviors in

their employees in order to facilitate functioning on complex tasks (Leavitt, 2003;

Thompson & Wildavsky, 1986). Ouchi (1981) juxtaposed the traditional American and

Japanese organizational culture styles and suggested that management through

commitment and cohesiveness seems to be the success formula in Japan. In the US, on

the other hand, tragic events such as September 11th have demonstrated that the courage,

cooperation and cohesiveness of the rescuer teams of firefighters and police officers was

key for the successful management of this emergency situation. These examples reinforce

the idea that fostering a specific culture is likely to be crucial for eliciting a variety of

employee behaviors ranging from high individual achievement to cooperation and help,

and from strict rule observance to innovation.

Organizational culture provides a meaning system (Cooke & Rousseau, 1988;

Martin, 1992; Parker, 2001; Schein, 1985) for employees who are making sense of their

environment (Weick, 1995). As such, organizational culture serves as a vehicle of the

organizational influence on the individual’s identity and behavior (Parker, 2000) by

socializing individuals into specific norms and patterns of behavior (Louis, 1980) and by

providing socially shared perceptions, which create predictability in the organizational

environment (Cooke & Rousseau, 1988). Only a limited number of studies have

examined the impact of organizational culture on employee behavior, and those have

specifically been restricted to studying collectivistic and individualistic organizational

cultural norms as predictors of cooperative employee behavior (Chatman & Barsade,

1995; Chatman, Polzer, Barsade & Neale, 1998). Consequently, there has been a relative


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