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Directions for Future Research

Role enactment. Based on the results, one notable area that needs further research

is the enactment of organizational roles. Overall, there was more consistent and stronger

evidence that culture communicates certain role expectations. The relationships between

roles and behaviors were not as pronounced, and often times, failed to reach statistical

significant. In addition, the moderating factors proposed here did not seem to be effective

in explaining variance in the outcomes of interest. Therefore, one gap that this research

leaves insufficiently explored is the linkage between roles and behaviors. In particular,

the question of how and why individuals enact expected roles needs further exploration.

Perhaps factors such as managers’ support for the organizational culture and

policies on a local level can be examined as moderators. From an agency theory

perspective (Eisenhardt, 1989), managers may not always act in the best interest of the

organization. The question of when and whether they support the higher-level

organizational policies on an ongoing basis within the organization as well as their

impact on role enactment remains to be explored.

To the extent to which eliciting desirable behaviors is important for long-term

organizational effectiveness (Katz, 1964), an implication of the difficulty in obtaining

relationships between roles and behaviors is for future research to seek ways to remedy

our understanding of the absence of these relationships. One promising approach would

be to engage in theory-inductive research in addition to the theory-deductive approach

(Beyer & Hannah, 2002; Strauss & Corbin, 1990). Qualitative research efforts may be

utilized to create a map of all potentially relevant constructs, which can be then tested

empirically. For instance, interviewing employees regarding the range of factors that


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