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facilitate or discourage them from engaging in organizationally prescribed behaviors may

be a viable approach in identifying a comprehensive set of factors (Farh, Zhong, &

Organ, 2004). Based on the initial qualitative stage, a more precise set of quantitative

measures can be employed to test the expected relationships. This would be a more

rigorous method for conducting future research.

The role of individual level factors is also important. Specifically, further research

is needed in the areas of individual differences, and how they may influence the

enactment of organizational roles. For instance, innovative behavior may depend on the

creative self-efficacy of individuals (Tierney & Farmer, 2002), while help may be tied in

with altruism.

Multilevel lens. Another area that deserves further attention is the multilevel

mechanism leading to behaviors. Specifically, factors at all relevant levels such as

organizational, departmental, group, and individual may be examined to establish how

they co-act to determine behaviors. It may be appropriate to use fewer organizations for

this line of research to allow nested designs, and the in-depth analysis of multilevel

factors. For instance, it may be the case that organizational culture, group climate, and

individual level factors have both independent and synergistic influence on desired

behaviors (Scott & Bruce, 1994).

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