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flexibility and stability, describes organizational cultures as falling under one of four

general culture types: clan, adhocracy (here I will refer to it as entrepreneurial), hierarchy

and market culture types (Cameron & Quinn, 1999; Denison & Mishra, 1995; Ouchi,

1979; Quinn & Rohrbaugh, 1983). These four culture types capture the stable patterns of

norms that organizations develop to cope with their environment by focusing primarily

on either their internal or their external environment and by choosing either to pursue

stability or to develop their adaptability (Denison & Mishra, 1995; Tesluk et al., 2002).

According to the Cameron and Quinn (1999) framework, based on earlier empirical work

by Quinn and Rohrbaugh (1983), some organizations choose to focus on their external

environment for achieving competitive advantage (e.g. Dell), while the effectiveness of

other organizations is predicated upon sustaining their internal organizational focus

through stable internal systems (e.g. bureaucratic systems). In addition, using a clustering

technique, Quinn and Rohrbaugh (1983) showed that another continuum along which

organizations differ is the stability-adaptability continuum (Lawrence & Lorsch, 1967),

with some organizations defining effectiveness along the lines of protecting the stability

of the organizational functioning, while others emphasizing quick adaptability as the

basis of their effectiveness.

Furthermore, according to Quinn and Rohrbaugh (1983), organizations choose

different means of organizing depending on the ends they pursue. For instance, the clan

culture type has an internal organizational focus and emphasizes adaptability through

encouraging cohesion, morale and cooperation among employees (Cameron & Quinn,

1999; Ouchi, 1979; Quinn & Rohrbaugh, 1983); the bureaucracy type of culture also has

an internal focus, but achieves this instead with an emphasis on organizational stability


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