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through the use of rules and regulations (Cameron & Quinn, 1999; Ouchi, 1979;

Zammuto, Giffort, & Goodman, 2000). The market culture can be characterized with a

strong external market orientation and concern with external competitiveness and

stability through efficiency control. Finally, like a market culture, an entrepreneurial

culture is externally oriented, but norms in the entrepreneurial culture emphasize

individual creativity and the ability to deal with external challenges by coming up with

innovative solutions (Cameron & Quinn, 1999; Quinn & Rohrbaugh, 1983; Zammuto et

al., 2000). I propose that these four culture types prime cognitive role perceptions, which

in turn lead to employee behaviors.

Research in organizations has examined role perceptions as a predictor of

employee behaviors within an organizational context (Hofmann, Morgeson, & Gerras,

2003; Morrison, 1994; Tepper, Lockhart, & Hoobler, 2001). From a role theory

perspective, organizations must communicate what roles are expected of employees,

thereby enabling individuals to make sense of their environment and enact the

communicated roles (Katz & Kahn, 1978; Weick, 1993). In support of the predictive

validity of role perceptions, a number of studies have confirmed a positive relationship

between perceiving helpful organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) to be part of one’s

role at work and the incidence of citizenship behaviors (Hofmann et al., 2003; Morrison,

1994; Tepper et al., 2001). Perceived roles provide a socially constructed cognitive

environment that guides the thinking and acting patterns of people in the organization

(Cooke & Rousseau, 1988; Weick, 1981). Organizational culture provides a salient

system of meaning, which creates specific cognitive role perceptions (scripts) as to what


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