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is expected in the workplace. Those cognitive role perceptions are among the proximal

factors leading to behaviors (Hofmann et al., 2003; Morrison, 1994; Tepper et al., 2001).

I propose that different organizational cultures create different role expectations,

which are functional for the respective culture (Katz & Kahn, 1978). For instance, the

clan culture would create the expectation that individuals should cooperate and

collaborate on tasks; the bureaucracy culture, on the other hand, primes cognitions that

strict rule observation of established procedures is anticipated in the organization; the

market culture type suggests an achievement role to achieve maximum efficiency and

finally, the entrepreneurial culture type creates innovative role cognitions (Zammuto et

al., 2000). I also propose that these role cognitions lead to behaviors ranging from

cooperation to competition and from rule observance to creativity. Even though some of

these behaviors might be construed as part of or closely interrelated with the task

performance of specific jobs (e.g. being innovative in a R&D unit or being strict in

observing the existing rules in the military), each behavior may occur in any occupation

and is not limited to a job type.

Examining the link between culture and behavior through the lens of role

perceptions in itself explicates the mechanism through which culture translates into

observable behaviors. Furthermore, to shed light on the boundary factors, which may

play a role in the process, I consider additional individual and organizational level

factors. I suggest that self-monitoring (Mehra, Kilduff, & Brass, 2001; Snyder, 1986) and

culture strength (Payne, 1996), for instance, are two factors, which may impact the

strength of the proposed relationships between culture types and cognitive role

perceptions. Self-monitoring is an individual difference variable that describes an


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