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Measurement of organizational culture. The person-organization fit literature

represents one identifiable stream of culture research that has attempted to measure

organizational culture and individual preferences for organizational culture (Chatman,

1989, 1991;Kristoff, 1996; O’Reilly, Chatman, & Caldwell, 1991). O’Reilly, Chatman,

and Caldwell (1991), have made considerable progress in identifying key measurable

dimensions of organizational culture along with individual culture preferences. They

provided a comprehensive literature review in order to identify a wide-ranging list of

categories that are relevant to individual culture preferences and organizational cultures.

Their research was prompted by a willingness to appropriately study quantitatively

organizational culture in a way that allows for meaningful comparisons between the

values of individuals and organizations. To that end, O’Reilly and colleagues (1991)

developed the organizational culture profile (OCP), which consists of 54 statements

describing both the organization and the individual in terms of enduring values and

characteristics. A central focus of the P-O fit literature has been to discover the effects of

good and poor person-organization fit on these values on important proximal outcomes

such as employee performance, satisfaction, commitment and turnover (Chatman, 1989,

1991; Kristof, 1996; Saks, 1997).

Other organizational typologies have also been developed to assess organizational

culture apart from the P-O fit stream of research. For instance, the organizational culture

inventory (OCI) developed by Cooke & Lafferty (1986) has been used to test

relationships between antecedents and culture as well as between culture and outcomes of

interest (Klein, Masi, & Weidner, 1995). This culture inventory is based on a circumplex

notion of personality that taps interpersonal and task-related styles (Cooke & Rousseau,


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