1988; Wiggins, 1991). The OCI consists of 12 specific styles that are placed on a circle.
Examples of the OCI styles include humanistic-helpful, affiliative, conventional,
competitive, and achievement.
Although the OCI presents 12 main cultural styles or norms, the latter cluster in
three more general types: constructive, passive/defensive, and aggressive/defensive
(Cooke & Rousseau, 1988; Cooke & Szumal, 2000). In the constructive culture type,
cooperation, enjoyment of the task and creativity are valued. The passive-defensive
culture type is characterized by traditional authority, norms of conformity and
compliance, and top-down authority. Finally, aggressive-defensive cultures exhibit some
negative dynamics such as competition and opposition that could be detrimental for the
organization in the long-term. Therefore, the OCI typology incorporates elements of the
four behavioral patterns of helping, innovation, rule observance, and competition on the
level of organizational culture. Table 1 provides a summary of the specific culture norms
and culture types as they are defined by the OCI circumplex.
Table 1: The OCI Cultural Styles Characteristics
Culture Type Cluster to Which the Style Belongs
The organization is managed in a Constructive Culture person-oriented manner; members are expected to be helpful and supportive with each other. The organization places high priority on interpersonal harmony. In this type of culture, setting and achievement of challenging goals is central to the work Constructive Culture Constructive Culture
1 This table is based on the work of Cooke & Lafferty (1986), Cooke & Rousseau (1988) and Cooke & Szumal (2000).