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1988; Wiggins, 1991). The OCI consists of 12 specific styles that are placed on a circle.

Examples of the OCI styles include humanistic-helpful, affiliative, conventional,

competitive, and achievement.

Although the OCI presents 12 main cultural styles or norms, the latter cluster in

three more general types: constructive, passive/defensive, and aggressive/defensive

(Cooke & Rousseau, 1988; Cooke & Szumal, 2000). In the constructive culture type,

cooperation, enjoyment of the task and creativity are valued. The passive-defensive

culture type is characterized by traditional authority, norms of conformity and

compliance, and top-down authority. Finally, aggressive-defensive cultures exhibit some

negative dynamics such as competition and opposition that could be detrimental for the

organization in the long-term. Therefore, the OCI typology incorporates elements of the

four behavioral patterns of helping, innovation, rule observance, and competition on the

level of organizational culture. Table 1 provides a summary of the specific culture norms

and culture types as they are defined by the OCI circumplex.

Cultural Norms

Table 1: The OCI Cultural Styles Characteristics

1

Culture Type Cluster to Which the Style Belongs

Humanistic-Helpful Norms

Affiliative Norms

Achievement Norms

The organization is managed in a Constructive Culture person-oriented manner; members are expected to be helpful and supportive with each other. The organization places high priority on interpersonal harmony. In this type of culture, setting and achievement of challenging goals is central to the work Constructive Culture Constructive Culture

1 This table is based on the work of Cooke & Lafferty (1986), Cooke & Rousseau (1988) and Cooke & Szumal (2000).

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