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Self-Actualization Norms

Approval Norms

Conventional Norms

Dependent Norms

Avoidance Norms

Oppositional Norms

Power Norms

Competitive Norms

Competence/Perfectionist Norms

concept. Creativity, quality over quantity, and employee development and self-actualization are central to this type of culture. Conflict is avoided at any cost for the sake of preserving good relationships. The organizational culture is conservative. Found in hierarchical organizations, where the decision-making is centralized. Organizational culture in which success is not recognized but failure and mistakes are punished. Characterized by people shifting responsibilities to others so that they don’t take the blame for mistakes. Confrontation and negativism are strong forces at work. Status and influence are the main goals of organizational members. Authority is inherent in the power position of individuals. Hierarchical pattern of decision- making and structuring of activities. In this type of culture, members are rewarded for outperforming each other. Winning is central to the organization and a “win- lose” framework defines work relationships. This exists in organizations in which hard work and perfectionism on specific objectives are especially important aspects of performance.

Constructive Culture

Passive/Defensive Culture

Passive/Defensive Culture Passive/Defensive Culture

Passive/Defensive Culture

Aggressive/Defensive Culture

Aggressive/Defensive Culture

Aggressive/Defensive Culture

Aggressive/Defensive Culture

Another stream of research has examined culture traits and a model of

effectiveness is the competing values framework (Denison & Mishra, 1995; Quinn &

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