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Rohrbaugh, 1983; Tesluk et al., 2002). According to this approach, organizations are

constantly involved in reconciling multiple forces pulling the organization in opposite

directions (Denison & Mishra, 1995; Quinn & Rohrbaugh, 1983; Tesluk et al. 2002). The

two main pairs of opposites rooted in Shein’s (1985) definition of culture that

organizations have to reconcile are the need for internal integration and external

adaptation and the need to be stable and yet, at the same time ready and able to change

(Tesluk et al., 2002). Quinn and Rohrbaugh (1983) found support for a four-dimensional

model of organizational effectiveness that represents the multiple objectives that

organizations pursue. The specific outcomes were maintaining cohesion/ morale,

maintaining flexibility, efficiency/productivity, and stability of the organizational status-

quo (Quinn & Rohrbaugh, 1983). Denison and Mishra (1995) proposed a model of

organizational culture traits, which lead to dimensions of organizational performance,

situated along the same dimensions as the model of organizational effectiveness (Quinn

& Rohrbaugh, 1983), namely external adaptation versus internal integration and change

versus stability.

Each of the discussed research streams on culture measurement has its strong

points. The P-O fit research (Chatman, 1989; O’Reilly et al., 1991), for instance, is most

suitable for research, the focus of which is mostly on the precise measurement of fit

between a finite number of cultures and individual preferences. The OCI profile attempts

at deriving a comprehensive typology of culture norms, which are not necessarily

associated with specific individual values and preferences. Finally, the competing value

framework presents a paradoxical perspective on the forces that shape culture such that

there are contradictory ends, which different cultures pursue (Cameron & Quinn, 1999).

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