X hits on this document





30 / 185

The different measures of culture indicate that there is a growing agreement that

culture can be measured. Here, I choose to maintain a four-dimensional conceptualization

of culture that integrates aspects of both the circumplex perspective on culture (OCI:

Cooke & Rousseau, 1988; Cooke & Szumal, 2000) and the four-dimensional

conceptualization of culture and effectiveness defined by the axes of external-internal and

flexibility –stability foci. The reason why I choose this model over the P-O fit

conceptualization, for instance, is that it provides a parsimonious but comprehensive

view on the dimensions of culture (Van Vianen, 2000). The three main factors of the

OCI, for example, suggest the presence of innovativeness, cooperation, competition and

rule observance (Cooke & Szumal, 2000). The constructive culture type, for instance,

instills norms for cooperation and creative behavior, which are two roles that I am

examining. Moreover, one characteristic of the passive/defensive culture is that it entails

conservatism and centralized decision-making, which implies existing norms for rule-

observance. This type of culture corresponds to a compliant role orientation whereby

employees strive to sustain order. Finally, in the aggressive/defensive culture

confrontation and negativism are strong forces at work. Due to the aggressive nature of

the aggressive/defensive culture, an aggressive role orientation would be the norm.

The culture-effectiveness model maintains four specific outcomes of culture:

cohesion/ morale, maintaining flexibility, efficiency/productivity, and stability of the

organizational status quo (Quinn & Rohrbaugh, 1983). The culture traits established by

Denison and Mishra (1995) are situated along the same dimensions as the effectiveness

model, namely external adaptation versus internal integration and change versus stability.

Cameron and Quinn (1999) have developed a specific questionnaire that taps four types


Document info
Document views721
Page views721
Page last viewedSun Jan 22 00:17:53 UTC 2017