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of culture, which can also be situated on the model defined by the stability-adaptability

and internal-external axes. The four culture types are as follows: clan (cooperative),

adhocracy (entrepreneurial/innovative), market (competitive), and hierarchy

(conservative). Cohesion/morale as an outcome of culture (Quinn & Rohrbaugh, 1983)

can be construed as an outcome of the clan culture. This type of culture emphasizes

cooperation and positive interpersonal interactions, and has, thus, been labeled “clan”

culture (Cameron and Quinn, 1999). Cameron and Quinn (1999) characterize the

adhocracy (innovative) culture as a place where entrepreneurship and creativity would be

valued employee behavior. Cultures where optimum efficiency is the norm may create

high-achievement, competitive orientations on the part of employees because of the high

performance goals. Cameron and Quinn (1999) labeled this type of culture as “market

culture” and pointed out that because market organizations are exclusively focused on

bottom-line results (Ouchi, 1979), people are expected to become goal-oriented and

competitive. The outcomes of a market culture resemble the efficiency/productivity

dimension of effectiveness (Quinn & Rohrbaugh, 1983). Finally, in the “hierarchy”

culture, stability is valued at all costs, and as a result, employees are encouraged maintain

the stability of the organization by carefully observing and following organizational rules

and procedures (Cameron & Quinn, 1999; Quinn & Rohrbaugh, 1983). Figure 1 presents

graphically the culture types in accordance with Cameron & Quinn’s (1999) initial

conceptualization.

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