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Figure 1: Culture Types Culture Types

External

Market Culture

Entrepreneurial Culture

(Outcome: Efficiency/

(Outcome: Flexibility)

Productivity)

Stability

Flexibility

Hierarchy Culture

Clan Culture

(Outcome: Stability)

(Outcome:

Cohesion/Morale)

Culture strength as an attribute of culture. According to Payne (1996), culture has

three important attributes: strength, direction, and pervasiveness. Strength denotes the

degree to which the culture is intense and strong. If a culture is strong, then the

underlying assumptions, the upheld norms, and the existing artifacts and symbols should

express a clear, singular message, thereby providing a more convincing and clear set of

expectations to employees. Individuals within the organization are more likely to

understand and comply with the culture norms if they are clear and strong (Payne, 1996;

Schein, 1984; 1985).

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