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Martin (1992) also emphasized the importance of understanding culture strength

by describing three perspectives on culture: integration, differentiation, and

fragmentation. In the integration perspective, culture has a strong impact on perceptions

and behavior because people in the organization agree on the content and direction of

culture. The fragmentation and differentiation perspectives suggest that when culture is

not strong and shared cohesively, symbols and values become ambiguous and open to

interpretation (fragmentation) and different subcultures may emerge (differentiation).

Roles and Role Theory

Role theory is concerned with studying human behavior in context by defining the

expectations and rewards associated with certain forms of behavior (Biddle, 1979). Social

position is a central concept associated with roles. Social position refers to the identity

that stratifies people in different social groups such as, for example, teacher, mother, and

manager. From a role behavior standpoint, each position has a characteristic role

associated with it. In addition, according to the predictions of role theory, roles are

induced through shared expectations of behavior (Biddle, 1979). The pragmatic view on

roles suggests that expectations are instilled in the individual during socialization and

individuals who are assimilated into groups conform to their expected roles. Another

important defining characteristic of roles, especially from a structural role theory

perspective, is their functionality for the social systems in which they are embedded

(Biddle, 1979; Stryker, 2002). For instance, if a player in a football team is being too

competitive with his own teammates, his behavior is not likely to be functional for the

overall performance of the team. In the same way, in a larger organization,


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