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sources). The latter task elements differentiate a role from a job. A work role is more

dynamic and more fluid than a job description and is more likely to contain elements

communicated to the employee or negotiated by the employee by means of the social

system (Dansereau, Graen, & Haga, 1975; Welbourne, Johnson, and Erez, 1998).

According to Turner (2002), for instance, incumbents use information from the

social system (such as their peers or organizational culture) to develop their roles. Graen

(1976) described an interdependent role-systems model according to which role demands

are generated via the organizational/situational demands, social or role-set demands, and

personal/personality demands. Hence, research suggests that roles emerge from the social

context and situational demands. Organizational culture may be one such potent

situational factor, which defines the social context and provides information about

expected roles.

Employee Behaviors

Increasingly, researchers and practitioners examining the employee performance

domain have started to recognize the importance of a number of competencies and

behaviors such as interpersonal cooperation and innovation that go beyond the confines

of the formal job description requirements (Goleman, 1998; Organ, 1988; Podsakoff &

MacKenzie, 1997; Van Scotter & Motowidlo, 1996). For instance, Goleman (1998)

emphasized the importance of a range of competencies above and beyond technical

expertise that contribute to employee effectiveness through the performance of behaviors

such as cooperation. Relying on individual knowledge a decade ago seemed to have been

sufficient for job performance; relying on the group mind for information, however, has


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