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already become a norm in many jobs (Goleman, 1998). Collaboration and cooperation,

thus, have become essential performance behaviors.

Research on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and contextual

performance has examined dimensions of performance above pure task behaviors (Organ,

1988; Kiker & Motowidlo, 1999; Van Dyne & LePine, 1998). This stream of research

has placed the importance on facets of performance such as helping and interpersonal

facilitation (Kiker & Motowidlo, 1999), conscientiousness (Podsakoff, MacKenzie,

Moorman, & Fetter, 1990) and innovative behavior (Morrison & Phelps, 1999) that are

not direct components of task performance. The argument for the importance of these

behaviors has followed a similar logic to Goleman’s (1998) work on emotional

intelligence: managing the technical requirements of a job alone does not lead to superior

performance. Behaviors that sustain the interpersonal context and other aspects of the

organizational effectiveness (Organ, 1988; Kiker & Motowidlo, 1999; Van Scotter &

Motowidlo, 1996) are also crucial for individual as well as organizational success

(Podsakoff, Ahearne, & MacKenzie, 1997; Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1997).

In sum, progress has been made towards fleshing out behavioral constructs that

contribute to work performance beyond the formal requirements of a job (Johnson, 2001;

Kiker & Motowidlo, 1999; MacKenzie, Podsakoff, & Fetter, 1991; Podsakoff et al.,

1990). And while the labels and number of constructs have proliferated, the question of

whether the latter are distinct in any substantive ways has remained equivocal (LePine,

Erez, & Johnson, 2002). I invoke role theory and the circumplex notion of human

behavior to create a theoretical framework of expected work roles that lead to employee

behaviors in order to address the lack of consensus on what constitutes performance


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