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Organizational citizenship behavior and contextual performance. Although OCBs

have attained a life of their own as an important organizational behavior construct in the

past decade through the work of many organizational scientists (Bateman & Organ, 1983;

Organ, 1988; Smith et al., 1983; Williams & Anderson, 1991), they have developed from

earlier notions of organizational efficiency (Barnard, 1938; Katz, 1964; Katz & Kahn,

1978). The interest in extra-role behaviors has been first advocated by Barnard (1938)

and later on promoted by Katz (1964). It is worth noting early on that even though extra-

role has been used consistently to describe behaviors above and beyond the formal duties

(Organ, 1988), the approach I take is that behaviors outside of the job description are not

extra-role. As the distinction drawn by Ilgen & Hollenbeck (1991) suggests, roles can be

different and broader than job descriptions. As a result, a behavior, which goes beyond

formal duties and task requirements, is not necessarily extra-role (Morrison, 1994;

Tepper, et al., 2001).

According to Barnard (1938), for example, it is crucial for executives to ensure

that employees in their organizations engage in discretionary cooperative behaviors. Katz

(1964) has also elaborated on what constitutes important employee behaviors beyond the

formal task duties. Innovative and spontaneous behaviors, cooperation, protection,

providing constructive ideas, self-developing oneself, as well as holding favorable

attitudes toward the organization all represent important behavioral tenets of

organizational efficiency (Katz, 1964).

In addition, it is worth noting that the term OCB has not been used consistently

for the description of non-prescribed behaviors. Some of the most prominent extant

conceptualizations different from and yet similar to OCB include organizational

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