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Organ, 1983; Smith et al., 1983). Compliance can essentially be described as exemplary

rule following and conscientiousness. Altruism stands for helping behaviors and overall

cooperation.

Others prompted by Organ’s (1988) seminal book on OCBs have found empirical

support for a five-dimensional structure of the organizational citizenship behaviors

construct consisting of altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy, and civic

virtue (Niehoff & Moorman, 1993; Podsakoff et al., 1990). Altruism and

conscientiousness correspond to altruism and generalized compliance respectively as

defined by Smith et al. (1983). The three added dimensions, hence, consist of

sportsmanship, courtesy, and civic virtue. Sportsmanship, for instance, represents

benevolent employee behaviors such as refraining from complaining in the face of

adversity. Courtesy, on the other hand, consists of interpersonal gestures that prevent

potential problems. Finally, the added dimension of civic virtue according to Organ

(1988) “implies a sense of involvement in what policies are adopted and which

candidates are supported” (p. 13). Furthermore, Organ (1988) goes on to describe

different forms of civic virtue behaviors such as attending meetings, reading the mail,

personal time, and speaking up.

Contextual performance scholars (Borman & Motowidlo, 1993; Van Scotter &

Motowidlo, 1996) have advocated a set of behaviors that are similar to OCBs. The two

main types of behaviors that are examined in the contextual performance literature are

labeled interpersonal facilitation and job dedication. The interpersonal facilitation

domain combined aspects of the altruism, courtesy, and sportsmanship dimensions

(Organ, 1988; Podsakoff et al., 1990; Niehoff & Moorman, 1993). The job dedication

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