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PI often implies ignoring or even being somewhat rebellious toward existing rules and

regulations” (Frese & Fay, 2001: p.166). Therefore, PI can be viewed as a distinct from

compliance (a typical OCB dimension) facet of employee discretionary behavior that is

essential for organizational effectiveness.

Creativity is a similar to personal initiative construct in that it is change-oriented

and it stands for spontaneous employee behaviors (Oldham & Cummings, 1996; Tierney

& Farmer, 2002; Woodman et al., 1993). According to Ford (1996) “Researchers and

laypersons seem to agree that creativity refers to something that is both novel and in

some sense valuable” (p.1114). Oldham and Cummings (1996) proffered “When

employees perform creatively, they suggest novel and useful products, ideas, or

procedures that provide an organizational with important raw material for subsequent

development and possible implementation…” (p.607). Morrison and Phelps (1999)

suggested that scholars should define personal initiative or what they called innovation as

an important aspect of performance that goes beyond the formal job description. The

construct of innovation that they examined was constructive ideas and suggestions for

improving the workflow that employees provided. In sum, personal creativity at work in

its various has attracted significant attention as an important aspect of performance.

Cooperative and competitive (achievement) behavior. In the OCB and contextual

performance tradition, help and cooperation are oftentimes considered as the central core

of non-prescribed employee behaviors and roles (Organ, 1988; Van Scotter &

Motowidlo, 1996). Interest towards a construct somewhat opposite to that of cooperation,

competition as an employee role behavior, however, has been somewhat lacking from the

organizational behavior management literature. Competition and competitive dynamics


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