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competitive behavior in groups. If important individual outcomes are tied in with

competitive behavior, members exhibit more competitive behavior and vice versa; if

incentives are based on cooperative behavior, individuals behave more cooperatively

with each other (Deutsch, 1949). The overall results of these experiments suggest that

groups with cooperative incentives have better group process and higher productivity

than groups with competitive incentives (Deutsch, 1949). I examine achievement

behavior as a mixture of competitive and individualistic behavior, and achievement role

orientation as a type of non-task behavior and role, which has received somewhat scant

attention in the organizational behavior literature.


A large body of literature has accumulated, which suggests that roles go beyond

the formal job description. The existing empirical research has focused on several

specific role behaviors as particularly important. The OCB and contextual performance

research draw attention to help /cooperative behavior and compliance/conscientiousness/

rule observance. Most of the OCB and contextual performance literature has examined

beneficial behaviors such as helping and compliance but has not focused as much on the

active change-oriented efforts that employee undertake on their job (Morrison & Phelps,

1999). The literature on creativity and PI has addressed this shortcoming by considering

innovative behavior an important component of employee performance. Finally, the

theory of cooperation and competition has been concerned with identifying antecedents

of cooperative, individualistic, and competitive behavior as two opposing forms of roles

and behaviors. Here, I focus on four types of behaviors (and respective roles), which have

a recurring role in the extant literature. Specifically, I am examining help, innovative,


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