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achievement-oriented, and compliant aspects of behavior. I relied on the existing

empirical research to put together a comprehensive set of behaviors and performance

roles that may go beyond the job description.

Individual differences and attitudes

Self-monitoring. Individual differences also play a prominent role in schema use

and construction (Fiske & Taylor, 1991). For example, self-monitoring is an individual

difference that might be particularly relevant in an organizational culture context. Snyder

(1974) succinctly described self-monitoring as “An acute sensitivity to the cues in a

situation which indicate what expression or self-presentation is appropriate and what is

not is a corollary ability to self-monitoring.” (p.527). High self-monitors are concerned

with presenting a public self that is in line with the expectations of the situation and the

people involved in a certain situation (Snyder, 1987). They are more adaptable and more

likely to change their behavior to suit what is socially accepted and socially desirable.

High self-monitors are prone to give higher performance evaluations and to be less

accurate because they want to be socially desirable (Jawahar, 2001). Individuals with

higher levels of self-monitoring have also been found to occupy more central positions in

their organizational networks due to their ability to adapt to the situation (Mehra et al.,

2001). High self-monitors are also more adept at using impression management tactics so

that they are seen as likable when using impression-management (Turnley & Bolino,

2001) and are viewed more favorably even when they are demographically different

(Flynn, Chatman, & Spataro, 2001). Low self-monitors, on the other hand, are viewed

unfavorably when they use impression management (Turnley & Bolino, 2001). These


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