organization perceive as expected and appropriate (Ashforth, 1985; Fiske & Taylor,
1991; Katz & Kahn, 1978; Salancik & Pfeffer, 1978; Weick, 1995).
Research on individualism-collectivism suggests that when primed subjects
retrieve cognitive responses attuned to the specific type of priming (Trafimow et al.,
1991). Research on national culture also suggests that subjects from different cultures
emphasize different aspects of the self (Triandis, 1989), have different cognitions,
emotions, and motivations (Markus & Kitayama, 1991), form distinct representations of
conflict depending on their cultural background (Gelfand et al., 2001) as well as work
differently in work groups depending on their level of individualism-collectivism (Earley,
Similarly, organizational culture has an impact on individual behavior, patterns of
social interaction and performance outcomes (Chatman & Barsade, 1995;Chatman et al.,
1998; Schein, 1985). As Schein (1985) put it:
“To function as a group, the individuals who come together must establish a
system of communication and a language that permits interpretation of what is going on.
The human organism cannot tolerate too much uncertainty and/or stimulus overload.
Categories of meaning that organize perceptions and thought, thereby filtering out what is
unimportant while focusing on what is important, become not only a major means of
reducing overload and anxiety but also a necessary precondition for any coordinated
action.” (p. 71).
In line with Schein’s predictions, Chatman and colleagues proposed: “Members
of collectivistic organizational cultures will view organizational membership as a more
salient category than will members of individualistic organizations” (1998: 751), thereby