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organization perceive as expected and appropriate (Ashforth, 1985; Fiske & Taylor,

1991; Katz & Kahn, 1978; Salancik & Pfeffer, 1978; Weick, 1995).

Research on individualism-collectivism suggests that when primed subjects

retrieve cognitive responses attuned to the specific type of priming (Trafimow et al.,

1991). Research on national culture also suggests that subjects from different cultures

emphasize different aspects of the self (Triandis, 1989), have different cognitions,

emotions, and motivations (Markus & Kitayama, 1991), form distinct representations of

conflict depending on their cultural background (Gelfand et al., 2001) as well as work

differently in work groups depending on their level of individualism-collectivism (Earley,

1993).

Similarly, organizational culture has an impact on individual behavior, patterns of

social interaction and performance outcomes (Chatman & Barsade, 1995;Chatman et al.,

1998; Schein, 1985). As Schein (1985) put it:

“To function as a group, the individuals who come together must establish a

system of communication and a language that permits interpretation of what is going on.

The human organism cannot tolerate too much uncertainty and/or stimulus overload.

Categories of meaning that organize perceptions and thought, thereby filtering out what is

unimportant while focusing on what is important, become not only a major means of

reducing overload and anxiety but also a necessary precondition for any coordinated

action.” (p. 71).

In line with Schein’s predictions, Chatman and colleagues proposed: “Members

of collectivistic organizational cultures will view organizational membership as a more

salient category than will members of individualistic organizations” (1998: 751), thereby

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