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2002). Schneider and colleagues (2002), for instance, have built on Mischel’s work to

suggest that strong climates induce more uniform patterns of behavior consistent with the

group climate as compared to weak climates. More recently, human resource

management scholars have also emphasized the importance of strength of the HRM

system in inducing appropriate and uniform employee perceptions and behaviors (Bowen

& Ostroff, 2004).

Building on the literature on culture and existing empirical research on climate

strength, I also expect that strength of culture will modify the relationships between

culture types and outcome variables. For instance, a strong culture also is likely to reflect

the presence of strong normative beliefs regarding what is acceptable in the organization,

which would in turn induce uniform expectations in line with the propositions of the

situational strength research (Mischel, 1976). In addition, when the culture is stronger,

individuals are more likely to perceive their roles in ways consonant with the

organizational culture, due to the higher clarity of the organizational system (Martin,

1992). Therefore, I propose that culture strength acts as a moderator of the relationships

presented in Hypotheses 1a-1h such that when the culture strength is higher, suggesting a

higher level of consensus, culture would have a stronger impact on employees’ cognitive

role perceptions.

Hypothesis 3 .a) Culture strength moderates the positive relationship between a

clan type of organizational culture and helping role and b) the negative relationship

between a clan type and achievement role such that when culture strength is high, the


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