entrepreneurial culture measure equals .85. The market-oriented culture measure also
exhibited a high degree of reliability of .91. Finally, the hierarchy culture measure has a
reliability of .89. Therefore, all of the culture dimensions measures exhibited acceptable
In addition, a multi-trait multi-method approach provides further evidence for the
convergent and discriminant validity of the dimensions of culture. Specifically, a
confirmatory factor analysis of a model in which both method effects (coworker vs.
focal) and culture effects (clan, entrepreneurial, market and hierarchical) suggests that its
fit to the data is high (Model 1: CFI=1.00; SRMR= .04). Comparing this model to one in
which the culture effects are removed shows significantly lower fit (Model 2: CFI=.68;
SRMR=.12). The chi-square difference between model 1 and 2 is also highly significant
(2= 89.39, 14df, p< .001). This result suggests that the culture dimensions exhibit
convergent validity. A comparison between model 1 and a model in which the traits are
perfectly correlated (model 3), on the other hand, suggests that the culture facets also
exhibit discriminant validity (2 =53.05, 4 df, p< .001). Table 5 details the results.
2 c -
SRMR/ RMSEA .04/ .02
Table 5: Multi-trait Multi-method Approach to Culture
Structure Model 1: Freely correlated traits and freely correlated methods. Model 2: Freely correlated methods but no traits. Model 3: Perfectly correlated traits and freely correlated methods.
Note. The 2 statistics for model 1 is not significant. The 2 values for model 2 and 3 are significant at p< .001. IFI=incremental fit index; CFI=comparative fit index; RMSEA= root mean square of approximation. c The change in 2 is based on comparisons between the Model 1 and the other two models. *** p< .001.