Specifically, focal MBA participants were asked to indicate the extent to which they
perceive four different types of behaviors to be expected of them by their organization.
The instructions specifically read: “Rate the extent that your organization expects you to
perform each role (NOTE: Work roles are activities that are not necessarily part of the
job description but are expected by the organization)”. A 1-7 anchored scale is used to
indicate the extent to which each behavior was an expected part of a work role (1-
definitely NOT expected as part of my work role; 2-only slightly expected as part of my
work role; 3-somewhat expected; 4-moderately expected as part of my work role; 5-
strongly expected as part of my work role; 6-very strongly expected as part of my work
role; 7-absolutely expected as part of my work role).
The participants provided their roles ratings by responding to an initial pool of 34
items (7 items for helping role, 13 items for innovative role, 6 items for achievement role,
and 8-items for compliant role). Most of these items were adapted from existing sources
(e.g. Morrison & Phelps, 1999) or developed based on a literature review; some new
items were also added to scales that were not so well developed in the literature (e.g.
achievement and compliant roles). I conducted a factor analysis of the items to see if the
items loaded on their component factors. Results from the exploratory analysis suggest
that some items need to be dropped due to cross-loadings or because of low loading on
their respective components. The initial item pool was not conforming to a four-factor
solution. However, after several iterations and after removing cross-loading items, a
smaller set of 13 items was derived using principal axis factoring with oblique rotation.
Table 6 provides details regarding the factor analysis. (Please see Appendix A for the